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ISSUE 3

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Aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activity in the hake Merluccius gayi gayi related to the Oxygen Minimum Zone off central-southern Chile

Impact of increasing water temperature on growth, photosynthetic efficiency, nutrient consumption, and potential toxicity of Amphidinium cf. carteraeand Coolia monotis (Dinoflagellata)

Authors

CORRESPONDING

Aldo Aquino-Cruz

aldoaqcz@yahoo.com

1

1

University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, European Way, Waterfront Campus, SO14 3HZ, Southampton, Hampshire, England, UK.

Yuri B. Okolodkov

2

2

Laboratorio de Botánica Marina y Planctología, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Pesquerías, Universidad Veracruzana, Calle Hidalgo 617, Col. Río Jamapa, Boca del Río, 94290, Veracruz, México.

Abstract

The effect of global warming on marine ecosystems may benefit the formation of harmful algal blooms. However, our understanding of the effect of higher water temperatures on the growth of harmful benthic dinoflagellates in the environment is practically unknown. The effect of increasing water temperatures from 5 to 30°C on the growth of two strains of benthic dinoflagellates (Amphidinium cf. carterae and Coolia monotis) isolated from the Fleet Lagoon, Dorset, south of England, was investigated, and their potential toxicity was assessed using two types of bioassays (mortality of the copepod Tigriopus californicus and haemolytic activity of chicken red blood cells). Benthic dinoflagellate strains were grown in f/2 medium at irradiances of 35-70 µmol m-2 s-1 and under a 12h L:12h D photoperiod. Cell abundance, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), nutrient consumption (N-NO3+ N-NO2 and P-PO4), and growth rates were determined in dinoflagellate cultures at growth temperatures between 5 and 30°C. Increasing water temperatures caused increased growth rates of the species. Elevated temperatures (25-30°C) were linked to the optimum growth of A. cf. carterae, while maximal growth rates in C. monotis were recorded between 15 and 25°C. A. cf. carterae had significantly higher growth rates than C. monotis. Declining Fv/Fm values indicated unsuitable growth conditions in culture for both species. The highest Fv/Fm values recorded had no relation to the optimum growth temperature for either species. Copepod mortality and lysis of erythrocytes confirmed that both dinoflagellate species may produce chemical compounds with potentially noxious effects.

Key words

Amphidinium carteraeCoolia monotis, growth rate, temperature, toxicity

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